Reiki is a Japanese form of
healing that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide but has been
around for thousands of years. Reiki involves the transfer of energy
through the practitioner to patient to enhance the body's natural
ability to heal itself through the balancing of energy. Reiki utilizes
specific techniques for restoring and balancing the natural life force
energy within the body. It is a holistic, natural, hands-on energy
healing system that touches on all levels: body, mind, and spirit.
ray-key) is a Japanese word representing universal life energy, the
energy which is all around us. It is derived from rei, meaning "free
passage" or "transcendental spirit" and ki, meaning "vital life force
energy" or " universal life energy".
channel energy in a particular pattern to heal and harmonize. Unlike
other healing therapies based on the premise of a human energy field,
Reiki seeks to restore order to the body whose vital energy has become
Reiki energy has
several basic effects: it brings about deep relaxation, destroys energy
blockages, detoxifies the system, provides new vitality in the form of
healing universal life energy, and increases the vibration frequency of
In Reiki the healer
places their hands above the recipient; however, it is the recipient
that draws the energy as needed. Thus, in this case, the individual
being healed takes an active part in the healing process as opposed to
having a passive part as in traditional medicine. The individual takes
responsibility for his or her healing. The recipient identifies the
needs and caters to them by drawing energy as needed.
Reiki treatments do
not require actual touching. The practitioner can hold his or her hands a
few inches or further away from the patient's body and manipulates the
energy field from there. Reiki practitioners will ask before touching a
patient so that the patient is always in control.
Reiki energy is
regarded as life force energy at its most effective-with the maximum
vibration. It is considered to have an almost divine quality and as such
includes everything, in a world where problems and disorders are deemed
to be due to the feeling of detachment from the world. There is no
division of Reiki energy into positive and negative forms but when a
person undergoes a session of therapy, they allow the energy to be taken
into themselves with beneficial effects. Essentially, those receiving
Reiki energy decide subconsciously just how much of the life energy is
Those who use Reiki
regularly often find they are more joyful, lively and their own energy
is enhanced-almost as if their batteries had been fully charged!
Existing conflicts within the person are broken down and there is a
greater vitality, leading to relaxation and a stimulation of the body.
As this improvement develops, the natural processes of renewal and
removal of toxins are enhanced and rendered more effective, ultimately
opening up more of the body to the life energy.
Body organs such as
the skin and protective systems such as the immune system are improved
provided that the individual is prepared regularly to undertake Reiki
and to undergo an attunement or initiation into Reiki energy. The
initiation is merely a means whereby the universal life force energy is
bestowed through the Reiki master. The master acts as a channel and a
link with the Divine, the universal life force energy, spirit guides,
reiki guides and all the healers kind enough to help to pass on the
Contrary to what some
people believe Spiritual healing and Reiki healing are using the same
universal life force energy to channel and heal, but Reiki is
more effective because of the attunement and the symbols. There are many
symbols and the symbols vary depending on the kind of reiki. The
symbols which I use in Usui Reiki are for specific areas, such as mental
healing, distant healing and various others. I have also found symbols
along the way which are just as effective, if not more and I also use
those when I teach reiki. I never limit healing, therefore I use others
symbols which I find to be effective also. This will only increase the
power and healing. To learn Reiki an attunument is necessary and it
allows the individual access to the universal life force energy, which
is used rather than their own life energy. An attunement allows you to
channel the energy more effectively, without draining the person giving
the reiki if they are grounded properly. Reiki also provides a
protective mechanism against any negative manifestations.
Reiki is taught in
three levels or degrees. In Level I or First Degree, the participant
receives attunement or initiation to the Reiki energy by the Reiki
master. This permanently guides the person to greater healing power. The
student learns how to do full body treatments on themselves and others.
In Level II or Second
Degree, the participant receives attunements which increase the
strength of the practitioner's Reiki energy. This primarily involves
learning the symbols which are used in advanced Reiki bodywork and
With Reiki Master,
the participant receives third-level empowerment and the ' final
symbol'. It is taught mainly for personal growth, but increases the
power tremendously when healing. A person who has completed Reiki Master
is able to give Reiki attunements and teach.
THE HISTORY OF REIKI
In Reiki the history
of the system and how it developed has developed into an "important"
part of the system. Some hold to their version of "the history" as
rigidly as some hold to the dogma or tenets of their religion. Up until
very recently (around 1998) the only information that was known were
the teaching stories that Mrs. Takata taught about Mikao Usui's founding
the reiki system. Since 1998, a number of western reiki masters,
namely Frank Petter, Dave King, Hiroshi Doi, Andrew Bowling, and Rick
Rivard have made contacts in Japan and learned of reiki that continued
on in Japan apart from the western traditions. The history that they
learned from the Japanese was more thorough and contained more factual
The most common reiki
story in the western world comes from Hawayo Takata's teachings. This
story is told in most all styles of reiki and by the Reiki Alliance. It
should be understood that this story was Takata Sensei's teaching
story. Mrs. Takata was a Japanese American woman. She was attempting
to convey Japanese cultural ideas, practices and beliefs to Americans
with a Christian cultural mindset and background. In addition, this
followed a historical period where Japan had been at war with the United
story, as told by Mrs. Takata, is that Dr. Usui was teaching in a
Christian university called Doshisha University in Kyoto in the mid
1800's. His students began to ask him if he believed that Jesus' could
heal as in the bible. When he replied that he did, they asked him to
perform such healing so they might believe as well. Dr. Usui did not
know how to heal. He began to question church leaders, who also did not
know how this was accomplished. So he set out on a quest to learn of
these methods. As the story goes, he traveled through Japan, China,
studied at the University of Chicago Divinity School and eventually came
back to Japan.
According to the
story, Usui had failed to find this great healing and so Dr. Usui
climbed Mt. Kurama for a 21 day meditation and fasting ritual. At the
end of the 21 days when Usui was about to leave, he saw a great light
approaching him from the distance. He was fearful, but he stayed. The
light struck him in the forehead (third eye) . This knocked him
unconscious, but upon awakening, he saw millions of small glowing
bubbles and the Reiki symbols were shown individually to him. The
meaning and application of each Reiki symbol was then apparent to him.
Dr. Usui was then
supposed to have healed his toe on the way down the mountain, as well as
a girl, and then eaten a full meal after a 21 day fast. He began
healing beggars in the slums of Kyoto. He found that those that he had
healed would return again for treatment of the same illnesses. Usui
found that many of these people held their illnesses and disease because
they served them as useful. These people preferred to live with their
illness because they were cared for by others, and various other
reasons. It was then that Usui felt that treatment must include not only
the physical, but also the emotional and spiritual. Usui also decided
not to do Reiki for free after this, and that some form of energy
exchange must occur.
It is taught that
this system was passed on down to his chosen successor, Mr. Chujiro
Hayashi who became the next "Grand Master" of reiki. It is also taught
that this mantle of "Grand Mastership" was passed to Mrs. Takata, which
was passed onto her grand daughter Mrs. Phyllis Furumoto. It should be
noted that Takata Sensei did not ever refer to herself as "Grand
Master", this was something that some of Takata Sensei's students did
and was perpetuated into a belief and dogma in the early practices of
the Reiki Alliance circa 1982-1983.
information began trickling out of Japan in the mid to late 1990's. Dave
King, founder of Traditional Japanese Reiki (TJR) met and trained with
surviving masters of the Hayashi lineage and received copies of his
manual as well as other materials. Frank Petter, began teaching a
western version of Reiki in Japan and began to learn of other lines that
existed there and began to investigate the history. Hiroshi Doi, was a
master under Barbara Weber Ray in the west (i.e., Radiance Technique
School) and began to correspond with several masters in the west.
Petter began writing books on the subject, and both Petter and Doi
Sensei have come to the United States and given seminars on techniques
that are in the Japanese Schools.
These sources have
revealed new information regarding Dr. Usui and the discovery of Reiki.
Mikao Usui was born August 15th, 1865 in the Yamagata district of Gifu
prefecture in a village called Yago. Usui studied Buddhism at the school
and temple on Mt. Kurama as a child. It is also thought that he may
have studied a Japanese form of Chi Kung and other oriental healing
systems. Most stories of the History describe Usui as scholarly, and
that he was a bright and hard working student. Usui was a successful
businessman. Somewhere around 1914 he went to meditate at Mt. Kurama,
and underwent a 21 day period of meditation and fasting. During this 21
day meditation the Reiki Energy entered his crown chakra. He discovered
that he had received a great gift of healing. He knew that unlike his
Chi Kung exercises which could deplete his own personal energy, this
Reiki Energy would heal without draining him.
He then spent seven
years in the Kyoto. He opened a school in Tokyo, where he trained
students in his Usui Shiki Reiki Ryoho. It is thought that he trained
about 2000 students to the practitioner levels and sixteen to teacher
level. He died on March 9, 1926.
Usui himself founded a
Reiki Society. Mikao Usui was the first President of the organization
which he called Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai. Usui died in 1926. There have
been six presidents of the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai since Usui's death.
None of them were Dr. Hayashi. None of them called themselves "Grand
master" or lineage bearer. Usui was succeeded in order by Mr. Ushida,
Mr. Takatome. Mr. Wantanabe, Mr. Wanami, Mrs.Koyama, and the current
President Mr. Kondo.
information was revealed regarding Chujiro Hayashi. Dr. Chujiro Hayashi
was made a Reiki Master in 1925 and was a student of Usui. Dr. Hayashi
was a retired officer from the Japanese Navy. He opened a Reiki clinic
which was more along the lines of a medical model. Dr. Hayashi made some
modifications in the system and most likely developed the 12 standard
hand positions from in use in the west today. These hand positions
allowed Reiki to be given by several practitioners at once. This group
healing technique was used in his clinic and it was believed this
maximized the flow of Reiki to the patient, and sped up the treatment
time. In Hayashi's clinic, Students would work in his clinic treating
the sick for a period of time in exchange for learning Reiki I. Those
who were talented and dedicated healers were taught Reiki II, in
exchange for a longer period of service and training. The most dedicated
were taught Reiki III. One of Hayashi's Masters was a Japanese American
woman, living abroad in Hawaii, Mrs. Hawayo Takata. Hayashi was a
respected master, who was the one who continued working and running in
Usui's clinic following Usui Sensei's passing. It is reported that Mr.
Hayashi left the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai due to a disagreement.
Mrs. Hawayo Takata
was born in 1900 on the island of Kauai in Hawaii. Her parents were
Japanese immigrants. She married and had two daughters. Her husband died
in 1930. Approximately 5 years later, she developed severe abdominal
pains, lung problems and subsequent nervous conditions. She returned to
Japan to visit family, and to receive medical treatment. According to
Mrs. Takata, she was found to have a tumor and an appendicitis. While on
the operating table, she reported that she heard a voice tell her that
the operation was not necessary. She asked the doctor if there was
another way her problems could be healed. The doctor told her about Dr.
Hayashi's reiki clinic, and she decided to go there. She received
treatments at Dr. Hayashi's clinic. Ms. Takata wanted to learn reiki and
requested that Dr. Hayashi teach her. He eventually agreed to teaching
her. In 1936, Mrs. Takata received her first degree in Reiki. At the end
of a year of training she received her Reiki II. She went back to
Hawaii and began to practice Reiki. In 1938, while Dr. Hayashi was
visiting Hawaii, he initiated Takata as a Reiki Master. She was the
thirteenth master initiated by Dr. Hayashi. Her certificate, notarized
on February 21, 1938 gave her the status of a Reiki Master and
authorized her to teach the system. Mrs. Takata initiated 22 masters.
Most of these 22 masters are alive and still practicing and teaching
At some point the
Reiki system taught to Takata from Hayashi changed. Many of the
meditative and spiritual practices (that are now being rediscovered as
they are released from Japan) were missing. It is unclear as to why this
was done. It is unknown if she was not taught them by Hayashi, or if
they were dropped because Westerners could not understand them. In any
case, there were not passed along to the vast majority of practitioners
in the west. Perhaps this is why so many people attempted to add
spiritual practices from Tibet and other places in an attempt to "fill
in the gaps" that they perceived were missing. Reiki in this Hayashi -
Takata Tradition is most commonly known as "Usui Shiki Ryoho".
After the death of
Mrs. Takata, Reiki in America split into two main schools. They were the
Radiance Technique (aka "Real Reiki") founded by Barbara Weber Ray, and
the Reiki Alliance founded by Phyllis Lei Furumoto (Takata's grand
daughter) and the remaining Masters of Mrs. Takata. Mrs. Furumoto began
to claim as time went on, that she was now the "Grand master and Lineage
Bearer" of Reiki, and recently that she held the "spiritual lineage".
The Alliance and its members acknowledge Phyllis Furumoto as the current
"Grand master" and "lineage bearer" of Reiki. While Mrs. Furumoto is
certainly the current head of the Reiki Alliance, and of the lineage of
Usui-Hayashi-Takata, which brought Reiki into the United States and much
of the world, there clearly exists no Grand master designation that
Usui passed onto anyone.
Reiki has evolved
substantially since the time of Takata's death in the western world.
Reiki has spread throughout the United States and Europe, and India.
Many masters have added or taken away some techniques and modified the
teachings. Some have added Tibetan Techniques, Chi Kung, Wicca, New
Symbols and whole new styles have been created. There are now styles
such as Raku Kei Reiki, Vajra Reiki, Essene Reiki, Karuna Reiki Ô,
Seichim Reiki, Tera MaiÔ Reiki, as well as several non-traditional Usui
Variants. The vast majority of practitioners are Independent Reiki
So there you now have
the history of reiki. Try to remember, as you read this, that none of
it matters one iota. The reiki history, was Usui's journey and
realization, of *what is*. His journey is our journey. He experienced
Satori, and from his experience of *what is*, set out this system as a
pointer to the truth. The history is now.
Did Reiki Come from Tibet?
It is commonly taught
these days that reiki was "rediscovered" by Usui. This is taught most
commonly in the Usui/Tibetan Schools and found in such books as
"Essential Reiki" by author Diane Stein. Some, noticing some
similarities between reiki and the Tibetan practice of empowerments by a
master and Tibetan practices such as Medicine Buddha, began to claim
that Reiki predates Usui's discovery and is in reality from Tibet. Still
others developed new sources for this "tibetan history", and began to
"channel" spirits, guides and other beings who told them reiki was
indeed from Tibet (or Egypt, Atlantis, the Mayans, the Lemurians, etc.
depending on which spirit you happen to be channeling).
statements regarding reiki coming from Tibet that I have been able to
find, appear to come from Arthur Robertson's work in Raku Kei Reiki.
Raku Kei Reiki was an invention of Arthur Robertson. He was a student
of Iris Ishikuro who was herself a Master student of Mrs. Takata. This
style was invented in America after Mrs. Takata has passed away in
1980. Raku Kei incorporates the Hui Yin (i.e., microcosmic orbit), the
Breath of the Fire Dragon (Violet Breath, golden breath technique) and
other Tibetan practices.
Usui states in his
own words, in the Usui Reiki Hikkei (Usui Reiki Manual given to his
students) that, "My Usui Reiki Ryoho is an original, it's nothing like
this in the world. So I would like to release this method to the public
for everyone's benefit and hope for everyone's happiness. My Reiki
Ryoho is an original method based on intuitive power in the universe.
By this power, body gets healthy and enhances happiness of life and
peaceful mind." Going on he states that, "I've never been given this
method by anybody nor studied to get psychic power to heal. I
accidentally realized that I have received healing power when I felt the
air in mysterious way during fasting. So I have a hard time explaining
exactly even I am the founder. Scholars and men of intelligence have
been studying this phenomenon but modern science cant solve it. But I
believe that day will come naturally."
From his own words,
Usui states that his art is original and like nothing else in the
world. He does not mention Tibet, Lemuria, Atlantis, Guides, Jesus,
Buddha, chakras, spirit guides or anything else that is commonly taught
along with reiki. He also does not mention that he "rediscovered" it.
It is also commonly
taught that Reiki comes from Tibet, Atlantis, Lemuria, the Mayans, the
Ascended Masters, the Galactic Council, the Federation of Light, the
Brotherhood of Light and even the space aliens. Usui's own words from
his manual would seem to be in contradiction to these claims. Others
have claimed that Reiki has roots going back well over 2,500 years, as
well as those that speculate that it is the same healing system used by
Jesus, Krishna, and the Buddha. Indeed some even make the claim that
Jesus ventured into Tibet and India and learned Reiki from Tibetan
Masters (see Diane Stein's "Essential Reiki"). Still others claim Reiki
is from Egypt, Atlantis, and even from Lemuria over 100,000 years ago.
Tibet has several touch healing systems, none of which are Reiki and it
is inappropriate to call them Reiki. There is no historical evidence
that Reiki ever existed in Egypt. There does not appear historically to
have ever been any touch healing systems like Reiki or Seichim in
Egypt. Atlantis disappeared and took her secrets with her. Atlantis and
Lemuria, while the subject of great interest, if they existed, took
their secrets with them when they were destroyed. There is no reason to
believe that Reiki existed before Usui.
It is also commonly
taught that Usui learned or discovered Reiki by reading the Buddhist
Sutras. It is often stated that since Usui discovered Reiki by reading
the Sutras, it must therefore have been a buddhist art that predated his
discovery of it. Since countless millions have read the Diamond and
Lotus (and other) Sutras and not ever seen anything that described Reiki
or discovered Reiki, It should be safe to assume that the sutras, while
they may have been a great inspiration, were not the source of Reiki.
In all likelihood,
Reiki was a combination of several different arts and techniques that
existed and were in practiced during Usui's lifetime that he combined
after he had a satori (enlightenment experience or moment of oneness).
Morihei Tanaka was alive at the time and in the same general area
teaching his Dai Rei Do and his system used Rei Shi Jitsu or Universal
energy to heal. My information also indicates that this school used
Reiju as their empowerment process. Reiju was the original process to
empower students that evolved into attunements in the western systems of
reiki. (It was also rumored that Usui had studied with Tanaka but that
cannot be confirmed.) Another school developed at this time was called
Omoto Kyo. This was developed by Onisaburo Deiguchi. His practices
used eating healthy food and diet and energy healing. Deiguchi's system
was further developed by Mokichi Okada who developed Sei Kai Kyu Sei
Kyo better known as Johrei and as the Johrei Fellowship Worldwide.
Johrei also uses Reiju to empower its followers. Finally Ki Ko was the
Japanese practice of Chi Kung. Ki Ko techniques were widely known in
Japan and found their way into many systems including Aikido which was
developed around the same time that Reiki was. Techniques such as
hatsurei ho and other practices in the original Usui system were
obviously from Ki Ko. It is most likely that Reiki evolved from these
and other practices in Japan that Usui learned and studied.
This section is the simplest to write of the whole manual. No one knows.
See I told you it was simple.
Anything other than, "no one knows", is purely speculation and belief.
There are those that
speculate that it activates the hara line. Others believe it opens the
chakras. Still others believe that it reconnects you to the divine
energy. There are many theories.
In the Usui Reiki
Ryoho Gakkai, the manual he gave his students he says, "I've never been
given this method by anybody nor studied to get psychic power to heal. I
accidentally realized that I have received healing power when I felt
the air in mysterious way during fasting. So I have a hard time
explaining exactly even I am the founder. Scholars and men of
intelligence have been studying this phenomenon but modern science cant
solve it. But I believe that day will come naturally." Even the
founder seemed to be at a loss of how to describe it.
I will share with
you, that I suggest that you not waste your time worrying how it works
and give you the following suggestion. Reiki cannot be grasped with the
mind, it can only be known in the doing and being of it. When you "do"
reiki, it is not so much in the "doing" as it is a state of BEing. In
doing reiki you are in the moment of oneness that Usui shared. In the
movie, "The Matrix", Morpheus tells Neo, "...sooner or later you're
going to realize, just as I did, there's a difference in knowing the
path and walking the path". Everything you have read to this point in
this manual is "knowing the path". In doing reiki, we are walking the
Reiki Level I is the
first step in the Reiki Process. The ability to do Reiki is passed onto a
practitioner by receiving an attunement or initiation from a Reiki
master. This attunement is all you need to use Reiki healing energy in
your own life and for those around you.
Reiki can be used on
Adults, Children, Animals, and Plants. People generally like receiving
Reiki and report that it is a relaxing and stress relieving process. A
normal treatment takes about 45 minutes to an hour to do. With children
and animals it generally goes much faster (they are also much less
likely to sit still for an hour).
This concept of
energy exchanges is one that was dogmatized into the practices of the
The Reiki Alliance as they codified what their understanding of Reiki
was in the first years after Mrs. Takata passed away. The idea or
concept of energy exchanges is the idea that if one receives a gift,
such as Reiki, that there must be an equal exchange of energy to
"balance" things out, so the universal balance is maintained. This
philosophy was added to Reiki by students of Mrs. Takata.
It is said, that Mrs.
Takata believed that Westerners would not value Reiki unless they paid
dearly for the Training and so used this to charge the $10,000 price for
Reiki Master training. Later masters added in the idea of "energy
exchange" in order to justify this practice of high charges. This was
never part of the original teachings of Usui. Some of the masters
trained by Mrs. Takata made their Master students promise to earn their
living only from doing Reiki. While this had the effect of developing
very dedicated healers, it also had the effect of making Masters very
competitive. Additionally, they became very selective in accepting
master students as a result. So as you can see, issues of money,
business, and competition entered the picture and from all this
developed the idea of energy exchanges.
Some advance the
arguement that everything is energy and money "represents energy". That
is, that money is a form of energy that is used to get other things.
It is a form that is valued by others. (If we wrote this in a formula,
would it be: if money is "energy", then money energy = spiritual
Some say that not
keeping the exchange "creates a vacuum in the universe". Some say that
if they do not charge they "dishonor reiki". Others teach that if an
exchange is not done there is a "karmic imbalance". Others teach that
people will not accept the worth of what you offer if you do not
charge. Still others feel that if they don't charge that the message
you sent to the universe is that you are not worthy of receiving
anything. If you are a healer who makes their living healing others,
it would be essential to charge and appropriate to do so. But do not
confuse honor with money. They are not the same. Charge if you wish,
don't charge if you wish.
In one of Takata's
teaching stories, she tells the story of Usui and the Beggars. The
story was that "Usui began to share this new gift with the beggars on
the streets of Tokyo. He found that they would repeatedly come back for
healing and did not appreciate the gift he gave them." It was then
added that as a result that he vowed never to give reiki away again for
This story is used as
a justification for the "energy exchange" and for the justification for
having people pay dearly for receiving reiki. The teaching story Takata
told, of Usui working in the slums of Tokyo is just that, a teaching
story, whose moral was that some people refuse to change. Historically,
Usui worked with people all over Tokyo following a major earthquake,
poor or not. He did not charge for this. It is said that he maintained
his own business. There was not a charge for being a member of his
organization, the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai, but a small monthly fee to
help keep the club going. It exists to this day. The moral of Mrs.
Takata's teaching story has become so far removed from it's original
meaning by the energy exchange position, it is all but forgotten. The
moral of the story of the beggars is that some people do not want to
change. It is easier to stay where they are, to take the easy (all be
it painless) way then it is to change. People who are reinforced for
being ill will stay ill.
The universe *is*.
Reiki *is*. What *is* does not need human ego to play energy Robin Hood
to try to equalize and balance things. If energy exchanges were so
important to maintaining spiritual balances of energy in the universe
one might expect other spiritual leaders to have mentioned them. I have
searched the Gita, the Vedas, the Bible, the Koran, the Tao Te Ching,
Buddhism and cannot find exchanges. One might think that if it was of
such import that it might be mentioned. You can find many healings, acts
of kindness, compassion. You can see the radical loving kindness and
compassion of Jesus who says, "your faith has healed you", but he didn't
add "now you owe me to balance this out". In these many traditions of
these great teachers, you don't see worthiness, money, balance,
exchanges. In reiki, the relationship of teacher and student is
perfectly "balanced", just as it is.
schools add in three additional symbols. These are the Tibetan Master
Symbol (i.e., Dumo), the Fire Serpent Symbol and the Raku Symbol. The
attunement processes are modified as well with various Tibetan breathing
techniques and the chi kung microcosmic orbit. The Usui/Tibetan
Schools and other various Independent Practitioners have added a Level
IIIa in between Level II and the Master Level. Level IIIa is often
called Advanced Reiki Training (ART) although these techniques are not
"advanced" and technically neither are they reiki. Some of the
techniques that might be included here are: Reiki Meditation using the
symbols for problem solving and for manifesting goals, Reiki and
crystals, making a Reiki crystal grid, using pendulums with reiki, Reiki
meditation to meet you "reiki guide", Reiki Healing Attunement, the
Tibetan Antahkarana symbol and a meditation for its use, the Hui Yin
position and the Violet Breath. In this dichotomy, Level III/Reiki
Master teaches the addition of three "Tibetan" symbols, and how to
perform the attunements.